The evaluation of pre- and post-measures of emotional indices associated with sports-related concussion

Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology -


Schneider, J., C. K. McKeever, T. Covassin, M. L. Sachs, E. S. Wait, S. Clayborne, P. Schatz and E. A. Zillmer.



Objective: Concussive events are often associated with a disturbance in mood and affect. Previous research has suggested that the presence of depression can exacerbate and maintain post-concussive symptoms. Thus, the general level of psychological distress can be a significant factor in evaluating symptoms of post-concussion syndrome. The current study investigated pre- and post-baseline assessment of affective symptoms among college varsity athletes to further explore the relationship between 748 Abstracts / Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 18 (2003) 687–807 concussion, mood, and neuropsychological functioning. Method: Of the 1,400 student-athletes participating in this multi-site study, 50 subjects acquired a concussion over the past season. Baseline pre-concussive symptoms were compared to baseline post-concussive presentation using the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment Test (ImPACT). Additionally, post-concussive symptoms were compared longitudinally across multiple post-concussive testings as well as to neuropsychological functioning. Results: MANOVA revealed significant interaction effects for affect and neuropsychological presentation. Concussed athletes were more likely to endorse symptoms of emotional distress compared to those athletes who did not sustain a concussion. An additional MANOVA resulted in no significant difference between symptoms of emotional distress and the length of time associated with recovery from a concussion. There were no differences among symptoms of mood and gender. Conclusion: The current study suggests that post-concussive symptoms associated with a disturbance of mood are more prevalent in collegiate athletes who have sustained concussive injuries than those who have not. The interaction of mood, sports-related concussion, and neuropsychological performance will be discussed.

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