Reports of Concussion History and Newly Diagnosed Concussions Are Higher Among Students With Self-Reported Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Athletic Training and Sports Health Care. 2018 Jul;

10(2):64-68.

Valovich McLeod, T. C., L. I. Shepherd, R. C. Bay and R. M. Williams.

FEE $

Abstract:

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between a self-reported learning disability or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), self-reported concussion history, and future diagnosed concussions. METHODS: Interscholastic athletes (N = 8,814) participated. Relevant participant demographic information was collected during baseline testing through the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT Applications, Inc., San Diego, CA). Independent variables included a self-reported learning disability and ADHD. Dependent variables included the self-reported concussion history and subsequent diagnosed concussions. Relationships were evaluated using relative risk ratios (P < .05). RESULTS: A total of 158 participants (1.8%) indicated having a learning disability, 375 (4.3%) noted ADHD, and 1,583 (18.0%) self-reported a concussion history. During this study, 632 concussions were diagnosed. Learning disabilities and ADHD both were associated with an increased concussion history (P < .001) and diagnosed concussions (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that athletes with a self-reported learning disability and/or ADHD may be at increased risk for concussions. Athletic trainers should consider these conditions as risk factors and attempt to ensure that these and other comorbid factors are identified.

Links to full article: