Normative data for the neuropsychological risk factors reported on the ImPACT neurocognitive test battery

J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Mar;


Sandel, N., G. Solomon, M. R. Lovell and P. Schatz.



Objective: ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) is a brief computerized neurocognitive test battery consisting of a demographic section, symptom scale, and six neurocognitive test modules yielding four composite scores: Verbal Memory [VerbMem], Visual Memory [VisMem], Visual Motor Speed [VisMotSpd], and Reaction Time [RT]. Neuropsychological risk factors reported in the demographic section of ImPACT can be categorized into three clusters: headache/migraine [migraineurs], neurological insult (i.e. seizures, brain surgery, meningitis), and psychiatric conditions/substance abuse [psychological]. This study presents normative data for ImPACT for athletes with a history of these risk factors. Participants and Methods: Athletes are U.S. males and females who completed baseline testing as part of standard preseason evaluation and reported at least one of the risk factors: migraineurs (N=2,423), neurological insult (N=216), and psychological (N=525). Athletes are separated into 13 to 15 and 16 to 18 year old age groups and gender stratified based on established norm classifications for ImPACT (2007). Results: Independent t-tests (p<.05) were conducted to explore males’ and females’ neurocognitive performance within each of the risk factor groups. No significant differences for gender were found in the neurological insult or psychological groups. Migraineurs aged 13-15 years old demonstrated significant differences for gender on VisMem t(1511)=2.002, p=.045, with males M=70.89(14.58) outperforming females M=69.30(15.42), and VisMotSpd t(1511)=3.808, p<.001, in which females M=37.22(8.12) outperformed males M=35.62(7.77). Significant differences were found in the 16-18 year old migraineurs group on VerbMem t(1091)=2.758, p=.006, with females M=85.56(12.32) outperforming males M=83.39(12.95), and on VisMotSpd t(1091)=2.715, p=.007, in which females M=40.19(7.83) outperformed males M=38.85(8.06). Conclusions: These data may help manage sports-related concussions when individual baseline data is unavailable.

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