The application of neuropsychological assessment procedures to the evaluation of athletes has recently become an area of intense interest and debate and has led to the development of research initiatives at both the amateur and the professional level. However, to date, only a handful of research studies have been completed that have addressed the special issues that accompany the use of neuropsychological assessment instruments with athletes. This article reviews the past use of psychological testing in sports and presents a model of neuropsychological assessment that is currently being utilized in the National Football League. In addition, the extension of this approach to major college football is discussed and test-retest data from a sample presented to provide the basis for comparison of athletes who have suffered a concussion. Recommendations of a national panel of neuropsychologists who are involved in the evaluation of athletes are presented in hopes of encouraging new research initiatives in this area.