Latent Structure of Post-Concussion Symptoms in Athletes at Baseline

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 2018 Nov;


Zuccato, B. G., T.L., M., Richardson, R. J., Merker, B. M. and Abeare, C..



Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the latent structure of the 22-item Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) in healthy athletes at baseline. An ancillary objective was to investigate differences in factor scores by age and gender. Participants and Methods: Archival clinical data were used in this study. Participants were 10,604 healthy athletes, aged 10 to 24 (M=14.484, SD=1.78). Participants whose performance on the cognitive measures was deemed invalid by the ImPACT embedded validity indicators were excluded. Principal axis exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using oblimin rotation was conducted. Factor scores were then computed based on the factors delineated by the EFA. Results: The data yielded four factors: a four-item cognitive factor, five- item somatic factor, a three-item sleep factor, and a three-item affective factor. Seven items did not load on any factor. There were significant differences by age and gender, although effect sizes were very small. Conclusions: The factor structure for the baseline data supports the structure yielded by other studies, despite methodological differences. Although significant differences between ages and genders were found, small effect sizes limit their practical significance.

Links to full article: