Introducing the ImPACT-5: An Empirically Derived Multivariate Validity Composite

J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2020 Jun;

Erdodi, L., Korcsog, K., Considine, C., Casey, J., Scoboria, A., & Abeare, C..

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Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To create novel Immediate Post-Concussion and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)-based embedded validity indicators (EVIs) and to compare the classification accuracy to 4 existing EVIImPACT. METHOD: The ImPACT was administered to 82 male varsity football players during preseason baseline cognitive testing. The classification accuracy of existing EVIImPACT was compared with a newly developed index (ImPACT-5A and B). The ImPACT-5A represents the number of cutoffs failed on the 5 ImPACT composite scores at a liberal cutoff (0.85 specificity); ImPACT-5B is the sum of failures on conservative cutoffs (>/=0.90 specificity). RESULTS: ImPACT-5A >/=1 was sensitive (0.81), but not specific (0.49) to invalid performance, consistent with EVIImPACT developed by independent researchers (0.68 sensitivity at 0.73-0.75 specificity). Conversely, ImPACT-5B >/=3 was highly specific (0.98), but insensitive (0.22), similar to Default EVIImPACT (0.04 sensitivity at 1.00 specificity). ImPACT-5A >/=3 or ImPACT-5B >/=2 met forensic standards of specificity (0.91-0.93) at 0.33 to 0.37 sensitivity. Also, the ImPACT-5s had the strongest linear relationship with clinically meaningful levels of invalid performance of existing EVIImPACT. CONCLUSIONS: The ImPACT-5s were superior to the standard EVIImPACT and comparable to existing aftermarket EVIImPACT, with the flexibility to optimize the detection model for either sensitivity or specificity. The wide range of ImPACT-5 cutoffs allows for a more nuanced clinical interpretation.

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