Factor structure of ImPACT in adolescent student-athletes

Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2017 Jan;


Gerrard, P. B., Iverson, G. L., Atkins, J. E., Maxwell, B. A., Zafonte, R., Schatz, P. and Berkner, P. D..



OBJECTIVE: ImPACT(R) (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) is a computerized neuropsychological screening battery, which is widely used to measure the acute effects of sport-related concussion and to monitor recovery from injury. This study examined the factor structure of ImPACT(R) in several samples of high school student athletes. We hypothesized that a 2-factor structure would be present in all samples. METHOD: A sample of 4,809 adolescent student athletes was included, and subgroups with a history of treatment for headaches or a self-reported history of learning problems or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed separately. Exploratory principal axis factor analyses with Promax rotations were used. RESULTS: As hypothesized, both the combination of Verbal Memory and Visual Memory Composite scores loaded on one (Memory) factor, while Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time loaded on a different (Speed) factor, in the total sample and in all subgroups. CONCLUSION: These results provide reasonably compelling evidence, across multiple samples, which ImPACT(R) measures 2 distinct factors: memory and speed. KEYWORDS: Cognitive; Concussion; Factor analysis; Memory; Sports PMID: 28122770 DOI: 10.1093/arclin/acw097

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