Depression and neurocognitive performance after concussion among male and female high school and collegiate athletes

Arch Phys Med Rehabil -


Kontos, A. P., T. Covassin, R. J. Elbin and T. Parker.



OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine the relationship of sport-related concussion with depression and neurocognitive performance and symptoms among male and female high school and college athletes. A secondary objective was to explore age and sex differences. DESIGN: Pretest, multiple posttest, repeated-measures design. SETTING: Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: High school and collegiate athletes (N=75) with a diagnosed concussion. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Beck Depression Inventory-II and computerized neurocognitive test battery (Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test), which includes concussion symptoms (Post-concussion Symptom Scale) at baseline and at 2, 7, and 14 days postinjury. RESULTS: Concussed athletes exhibited significantly higher levels of depression from baseline at 2 days (P

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