Compromised Structural and Functional Connectivity Among Professional Boxers

J Int Neuropsychol Soc -


Fedor, A., M. L. Alosco, K. Fulcher and J. Gunstad.



Objective: An estimated 4 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States and recent work has identified risk factors for these injuries. The current study examined the possibility that student- athletes with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might be at elevated risk for concussion. Participants and Methods: 139 NCAA division-I football, basketball, soccer, field hockey, and volleyball athletes (72 males, 67 female) completed baseline assessment of the Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) as part of a larger concussion protocol. Diagnosis of ADHD and history of concussion were both self- reported as part of the ImPACT. Results: Many athletes (18%) of the current sample reported at least one concussion and 12.3% reported experiencing two or more concussions (max = 4). Of the sample, 10.1% reported a diagnostic history of ADHD. Analysis of covariance adjusting for gender, years of athletic play, and premorbid intelligence revealed athletes with ADHD reported a greater number of past concussions than athletes without ADHD (F(1, 138) = 5.50, p = .02; M (SD) = .93 (.73) vs. .40 (.81). Conclusions: The current findings suggest that student-athletes with ADHD may be at elevated risk for concussion. Future studies are needed using more detailed assessments to confirm these findings and clarify mechanisms by which ADHD creates a vulnerability for concussion

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